The Khitan people , who used a para-Mongolic language, [1] founded an empire known as the Liao dynasty — and ruled Mongolia and portions of the present-day Russian Far East , northern Korea , and North China. In , Genghis Khan was able to unite the Mongols , forging them into a fighting force which went on to establish the largest contiguous empire in world history, the Mongol Empire — After the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire , Mongolia came to be ruled by the Yuan dynasty — based in Khanbaliq modern Beijing. Buddhism in Mongolia began with the Yuan emperors' conversion to and dissemination of Tibetan Buddhism. After the collapse of the Mongol-led China-based Yuan dynasty in , the Yuan court retreated to the Mongolian Plateau , marking the start of the Northern Yuan dynasty — The Mongols returned to their earlier patterns of internal strife and their old shamanist ways after the collapse of Yuan dynasty. It was only in the 16th and 17th centuries did Buddhism reemerge in Mongolia. At the end of the 17th century, present-day Mongolia became part of the area ruled by the Manchu -led Qing dynasty. During the Xinhai Revolution , Mongolia declared independence from China but had to struggle until to firmly establish de facto independence and until to gain international recognition. In , the Mongolian People's Republic was declared, and Mongolian politics began to follow the same patterns as Soviet politics of the time. Following the Revolutions of , the Mongolian Revolution of led to a multi-party system , a new constitution in , and a transition to a market economy. The climate of Central Asia became dry after the large tectonic collision between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. This impact threw up the massive chain of mountains known as the Himalayas. The Himalayas, Greater Khingan and Lesser Khingan mountains act like a high wall, blocking the warm and wet climate from penetrating into Central Asia. The Mongolian climate was more humid hundreds of thousands of years ago. Mongolia is known to be the source of priceless paleontological discoveries. The first scientifically confirmed dinosaur eggs were found in Mongolia during the expedition of the American Museum of Natural History , led by Roy Chapman Andrews. During the middle to late Eocene Epoch, Mongolia was the home of many Paleogene mammals with Sarkastodon and Andrewsarchus being the most prominent of them. Homo erectus possibly inhabited Mongolia as much as , years ago but fossils of Homo erectus have not yet been found in Mongolia. Stone tools have been found in the southern, Gobi , region, perhaps dating back as much as , years. Contemporary findings from western Mongolia include only temporary encampments of hunters and fishers. The population during the Copper Age has been described as " paleomongolid " in the east of what is now Mongolia, and as " europid " in the west. Deer stones are ancient megaliths carved with symbols that can be found all over central and eastern Eurasia but are concentrated largely in Siberia and Mongolia. Most deer stones occur in association with ancient graves; it is believed that stones are the guardians of the dead. There are around deer stones known in Mongolia of a total of deer stones that have been found in Central Asia and South Siberia. Their true purpose and creators are still unknown. Some researchers claim that deer stones are rooted in shamanism and are thought to have been set up during the Bronze Age around BC, and may mark the graves of important people. Later inhabitants of the area likely reused them to mark their own burial mounds, and perhaps for other purposes. In Mongolia, the Lake Baikal area, and the Sayan and Altai Mountains , there are , 20, 20, and 60 known deer stones respectively. Moreover, there are another 20 deer stones in Kazakhstan and the Middle East Samashyev and 10 further west, specifically in Ukraine and parts of the Russian Federation , including the provinces of Orenburg and the Caucasus , and near the Elbe River Mongolian History According to H. Volkov believes that some of the methods of crafting deer stone art are closely related to Scythians Volkov , whereas Mongolian archaeologist D. Tseveendorj regards deer stone art as having originated in Mongolia during the Bronze Age and spread thereafter to Tuva and the Baikal area Tseveendorj

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