Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy , ideology , and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment , particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter. While environmentalism focuses more on the environmental and nature-related aspects of green ideology and politics , ecology combines the ideology of social ecology and environmentalism. Environmentalism advocates the preservation, restoration and improvement of the natural environment and critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate , and may be referred to as a movement to control pollution or protect plant and animal diversity. At its crux, environmentalism is an attempt to balance relations between humans and the various natural systems on which they depend in such a way that all the components are accorded a proper degree of sustainability. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are many different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. Environmentalism and environmental concerns are often represented by the colour green , [2] but this association has been appropriated by the marketing industries for the tactic known as greenwashing. Environmentalism is opposed by anti-environmentalism , which says that the Earth is less fragile than some environmentalists maintain, and portrays environmentalism as overreacting to the human contribution to climate change or opposing human advancement. Environmentalism denotes a social movement that seeks to influence the political process by lobbying, activism, and education in order to protect natural resources and ecosystems. An environmentalist is a person who may speak out about our natural environment and the sustainable management of its resources through changes in public policy or individual behaviour. This may include supporting practices such as informed consumption, conservation initiatives, investment in renewable resources , improved efficiencies in the materials economy, transitioning to new accounting paradigms such as Ecological economics , renewing and revitalizing our connections with non-human life or even opting to have one less child to reduce consumption and pressure on resources. In various ways for example, grassroots activism and protests , environmentalists and environmental organisations seek to give the natural world a stronger voice in human affairs. In general terms, environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources, and the protection and restoration, when necessary of the natural environment through changes in public policy and individual behaviour. In its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered around ecology , health , and human rights. A concern for environmental protection has recurred in diverse forms, in different parts of the world, throughout history. The earliest ideas of environment protectionism can be traced in Jainism , which was revived by Mahavira in 6th century BC in ancient India. Jainism offers a view that may seem readily compatible with core values associated with environmental activism, i. His teachings on the symbiosis between all living beings and the five elements—earth, water, air, fire, and space—form the basis of environmental sciences today. In Europe, King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in , after its smoke had become a problem. Earlier in the Middle East, the Caliph Abu Bakr in the s commanded his army to "Bring no harm to the trees, nor burn them with fire," and "Slay not any of the enemy's flock, save for your food. Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution, such as air pollution, water pollution , soil contamination , municipal solid waste mishandling, and environmental impact assessments of certain localities. At the advent of steam and electricity the muse of history holds her nose and shuts her eyes H. Wells The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution. The emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in coal consumption gave rise to an unprecedented level of air pollution in industrial centers; after the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. An Alkali inspector and four sub-inspectors were appointed to curb this pollution. The responsibilities of the inspectorate were gradually expanded, culminating in the Alkali Order which placed all major heavy industries that emitted smoke , grit, dust and fumes under supervision. In industrial cities local experts and reformers, especially after , took the lead in identifying environmental degradation and pollution, and initiating grass-roots movements to demand and achieve reforms. It was founded by artist Sir William Blake Richmond , frustrated with the pall cast by coal smoke. Although there were earlier pieces of legislation, the Public Health Act required all furnaces and fireplaces to consume their own smoke. It also provided for sanctions against factories that emitted large amounts of black smoke. The provisions of this law were extended in with the Smoke Abatement Act to include other emissions, such as soot, ash and gritty particles and to empower local authorities to impose their own regulations. During the Spanish Revolution , anarchist-controlled territories undertook several environmental reforms, which were possibly the largest in the world at the time. Daniel Guerin notes that anarchist territories would diversify crops, extend irrigation , initiate reforestation , start tree nurseries and help to establish naturist communities. It was only under the impetus of the Great Smog of in London, which almost brought the city to a standstill and may have caused upward of 6, deaths, that the Clean Air Act was passed and airborne pollution in the city was first tackled. Financial incentives were offered to householders to replace open coal fires with alternatives such as installing gas fires , or for those who preferred, to burn coke instead a byproduct of town gas production which produces minimal smoke. The act formed an important impetus to modern environmentalism, and caused a rethinking of the dangers of environmental degradation to people's quality of life.

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