Personality is defined as the characteristic sets of behaviors , cognitions , and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. On the other hand, more behaviorally-based approaches define personality through learning and habits. Nevertheless, most theories view personality as relatively stable. The study of the psychology of personality, called personality psychology , attempts to explain the tendencies that underlie differences in behavior. Many approaches have been taken on to study personality, including biological, cognitive, learning and trait-based theories, as well as psychodynamic, and humanistic approaches. Personality can be determined through a variety of tests. Due to the fact that personality is a complex idea, the dimensions of personality and scales of personality tests vary and often are poorly defined. Two main tools to measure personality are objective tests and projective measures. All of these tests are beneficial because they have both reliability and validity , two factors that make a test accurate. It measures personality based on Cattell's 16 factor theory of personality. Psychologists also use it as a clinical measuring tool to diagnose psychiatric disorders and help with prognosis and therapy planning. Personality is often broken into factors or dimensions, statistically extracted from large questionnaires through Factor analysis. When brought back to two dimensions, often the dimensions of introvert-extrovert and neuroticism emotionally unstable-stable are used as first proposed by Eysenck in the s. Many factor analyses found what is called the Big Five , which are openness to experience , conscientiousness , extraversion , agreeableness , and neuroticism or emotional stability. These components are generally stable over time, and about half of the variance appears to be attributable to a person's genetics rather than the effects of one's environment. The Big Five Inventory is the most used measuring tool. Some research has investigated whether the relationship between happiness and extraversion seen in adults can also be seen in children. The implications of these findings can help identify children that are more likely to experience episodes of depression and develop types of treatment that such children are likely to respond to. In both children and adults, research shows that genetics, as opposed to environmental factors, exert a greater influence on happiness levels. Personality is not stable over the course of a lifetime, but it changes much more quickly during childhood, so personality constructs in children are referred to as temperament. Temperament is regarded as the precursor to personality. This model measures levels of emotionality, activity, sociability, and shyness in children. The personality theorists consider temperament EAS model similar to the Big Five model in adults; however, this might be due to a conflation of concepts of personality and temperament as described above. Findings show that high degrees of sociability and low degrees of shyness are equivalent to adult extraversion, and correlate with higher levels of life satisfaction in children. Another interesting finding has been the link found between acting extraverted and positive affect. Extraverted behaviors include acting talkative, assertive, adventurous, and outgoing. For the purposes of this study, positive affect is defined as experiences of happy and enjoyable emotions. In other words, the study focused on the benefits and drawbacks of introverts people who are shy, socially inhibited and non-aggressive acting extraverted, and of extraverts acting introverted. After acting extraverted, introverts' experience of positive affect increased  whereas extraverts seemed to experience lower levels of positive affect and suffered from the phenomenon of ego depletion. Ego depletion , or cognitive fatigue, is the use of one's energy to overtly act in a way that is contrary to one's inner disposition. When people act in a contrary fashion, they divert most, if not all, cognitive energy toward regulating this foreign style of behavior and attitudes. Because all available energy is being used to maintain this contrary behavior, the result is an inability to use any energy to make important or difficult decisions, plan for the future, control or regulate emotions, or perform effectively on other cognitive tasks. One question that has been posed is why extraverts tend to be happier than introverts. The two types of explanations attempt to account for this difference are instrumental theories and temperamental theories.
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