A dominant-party system , or one-party dominant system is a political system in which opposition groups or parties are permitted, but a single party dominates election results. Between and , more than countries were included in the list of dominant-party systems, i. Critics of the "dominant party" theory argue that it views the meaning of democracy as given, and that it assumes that only a particular conception of representative democracy in which different parties alternate frequently in power is valid. But it is also a very conservative approach to politics. Its fundamental political assumptions are restricted to one form of democracy, electoral politics and hostile to popular politics. This is manifest in the obsession with the quality of electoral opposition and its sidelining or ignoring of popular political activity organised in other ways. The assumption in this approach is that other forms of organisation and opposition are of limited importance or a separate matter from the consolidation of their version of democracy. One of the dangers of dominant parties is "the tendency of dominant parties to conflate party and state and to appoint party officials to senior positions irrespective of their having the required qualities. In a one-party system other parties are banned, but in dominant-party systems other political parties are tolerated, and in democratic dominant-party systems operate without overt legal impediment, but do not have a realistic chance of winning; the dominant party genuinely wins the votes of the vast majority of voters every time or, in authoritarian systems, claims to. In some states opposition parties are subject to varying degrees of official harassment and most often deal with restrictions on free speech such as press laws , lawsuits against the opposition, and rules or electoral systems such as gerrymandering of electoral districts designed to put them at a disadvantage. In some cases outright electoral fraud keeps the opposition from power. On the other hand, some dominant-party systems occur, at least temporarily, in countries that are widely seen, both by their citizens and outside observers, to be textbook examples of democracy. An example of a genuine democratic dominant-party system would be the pre- Emergency India, which was almost universally viewed by all as being a democratic state, even though the only major national party at that time was the Indian National Congress. The reasons why a dominant-party system may form in such a country are often debated: supporters of the dominant party tend to argue that their party is simply doing a good job in government and the opposition continuously proposes unrealistic or unpopular changes, while supporters of the opposition tend to argue that the electoral system disfavors them for example because it is based on the principle of first past the post , or that the dominant party receives a disproportionate amount of funding from various sources and is therefore able to mount more persuasive campaigns. In states with ethnic issues, one party may be seen as being the party for an ethnicity or race with the party for the majority ethnic, racial or religious group dominating, e. Sub-national entities are often dominated by one party due to the area's demographic being on one end of the spectrum. For example, the current elected government of the District of Columbia has been governed by Democrats since its creation in the s, Bavaria by the Christian Social Union since , Madeira by the Social Democrats since , and Alberta by Progressive Conservatives from to On the other hand, where the dominant party rules nationally on a genuinely democratic basis, the opposition may be strong in one or more subnational areas, possibly even constituting a dominant party locally; an example is South Africa, where although the African National Congress is dominant at the national level, the opposition Democratic Alliance is strong to dominant in the Province of Western Cape. Canada 's House of Commons , the lower house of the Parliament of Canada , operates under a multi-party system , although every federal election since has seen in essence only two federal parties win enough seats to form a government: the Liberal Party , and various iterations of a conservative party including the now defunct Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and the Conservative Party , which governed from to While federally, the Liberals and Conservatives generally dominate federal politics, provincial political parties are not directly affiliated with their federal counterparts, and several have formed majority and minority governments on a provincial level. The Liberal Party of Canada was the dominant party in the federal government of Canada for so much of its history that it is sometimes given the moniker "Canada's natural governing party". After a decade in opposition, the Liberals have returned to power following the election and was re-elected in the election. As a whole, the nation has a two-party system , with the main parties since the midth century being Democratic Party and the Republican Party. However, some states and cities have been dominated by one of these parties for up to several decades. Generally, the Democratic Party dominate in the urban metropolitan areas, while the Republican Party dominate in the rural areas. Following the elections , the Republican Party continued to hold a majority of State Legislatures and a majority of Governorships. However the Democratic Party won a majority of seats in the House of Representatives , while the Republican Party increased their majority in the Senate , resulting in a split Congress. As a consequence of Donald Trump 's victory in the elections , the Republican Party also controls the Presidency. Dominant-party systems can also exist on native reservations with republican forms of government. The Seneca Nation of Indians , a tribe with territory within the bounds of New York State, has had the Seneca Party as the dominant party in its political system for several decades. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.
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