Method acting is a range of training and rehearsal techniques that seek to encourage sincere and emotionally expressive performances, as formulated by a number of different theatre practitioners. These techniques are built on Stanislavski's system , developed by the Russian actor and director Konstantin Stanislavski and captured in his books An Actor Prepares , Building a Character , and Creating a Role. Among those who have contributed to the development of the Method, three teachers are associated with "having set the standard of its success", each emphasizing different aspects of the approach: Lee Strasberg the psychological aspects , Stella Adler the sociological aspects , and Sanford Meisner the behavioral aspects. In the first three decades of the 20th century , Stanislavski organized his training, preparation, and rehearsal techniques into a coherent, systematic methodology. The "method" brought together and built on: 1 the director-centred, unified aesthetic and disciplined, ensemble approach of the Meiningen company ; 2 the actor-centred realism of the Maly ; 3 and the naturalistic staging of Antoine and the independent theatre movement. The "system" cultivates what Stanislavski calls the "art of experiencing" to which he contrasts the " art of representation ". As well as Stanislavski's early work, the ideas and techniques of Yevgeny Vakhtangov a Russian-Armenian student who had died in at the age of 39 were also an important influence on the development of the Method. Vakhtangov's "object exercises" were developed further by Uta Hagen as a means for actor training and the maintenance of skills. Strasberg attributed to Vakhtangov the distinction between Stanislavski's process of "justifying" behavior with the inner motive forces that prompt that behavior in the character and "motivating" behavior with imagined or recalled experiences relating to the actor and substituted for those relating to the character. Following this distinction, actors ask themselves "What would motivate me, the actor, to behave in the way the character does? The interest generated led to a decision by Boleslawski and Maria Ouspenskaya another student at the First Studio to emigrate to the US and to establish the American Laboratory Theatre. However, the version of Stanislavski's practice these students took to the US with them was that developed in the s, rather than the more fully elaborated version of the "system" detailed in Stanislavski's acting manuals from the s, An Actor's Work and An Actor's Work on a Role. The first half of An Actor's Work , which treated the psychological elements of training, was published in a heavily abridged and misleadingly translated version in the US as An Actor Prepares in English-language readers often confused the first volume on psychological processes with the "system" as a whole. Among the concepts and techniques of method acting are substitution , "as if", sense memory, affective memory , and animal work all of which were first developed by Stanislavski. Contemporary method actors sometimes seek help from psychologists in the development of their roles. In Strasberg's approach, actors make use of experiences from their own lives to bring them closer to the experience of their characters. This technique, which Stanislavski came to call emotion memory Strasberg tends to use the alternative formulation, "affective memory" , involves the recall of sensations involved in experiences that made a significant emotional impact on the actor. Without faking or forcing, actors allow those sensations to stimulate a response and try not to inhibit themselves. Stanislavski's approach rejected emotion memory except as a last resort and prioritized physical action as an indirect pathway to emotional expression. In training, as distinct from rehearsal process, the recall of sensations to provoke emotional experience and the development of a vividly imagined fictional experience remained a central part both of Stanislavski's and the various Method-based approaches that developed out of it. A widespread misconception about method acting—particularly in the popular media—equates method actors with actors who choose to remain in character even offstage or off-camera for the duration of a project. Her version of the method is based on the idea that actors should stimulate emotional experience by imagining the scene's "given circumstances", rather than recalling experiences from their own lives. Adler's approach also seeks to stimulate the actor's imagination through the use of "as ifs", which substitute more personally affecting imagined situations for the circumstances experienced by the character. The charge that Strasberg's method distorted Stanislavski's system has been responsible for a considerable revivalist interest in Stanislavski's "pure" teachings. As the use of the Method has declined considerably from its peak in the midth century, acting teachers claiming to teach Stanislavski's unadulterated system are becoming more numerous. Alfred Hitchcock described his work with Montgomery Clift in I Confess as difficult "because you know, he was a method actor". He recalled similar problems with Paul Newman in Torn Curtain. How would you portray death if you had to experience it first? During the filming of Marathon Man , Laurence Olivier , who had lost patience with method acting two decades earlier while filming The Prince and the Showgirl , was said to have quipped to Dustin Hoffman, after Hoffman stayed up all night to match his character's situation, that Hoffman should "try acting It's so much easier. There are claims in Indian media that in Indian cinema , a form of method acting was developed independently from American cinema. Dilip Kumar , a Hindi cinema actor who debuted in the s and eventually became one of the biggest Indian movie stars of the s and s, was a pioneer of method acting, predating Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando. Mammootty and Jayasurya are method actors predominantly in Malayalam films. Ranga Rao is also considered as one of the finest method actors ever the industry made, in Tamil cinema. Sivaji Ganesan and Kamal Hassan are also method actors. When the felt emotions of a played character are not compartmentalized, they can encroach on other facets of life, often seeming to disrupt the actor's psyche. This occurs as the actor delves into previous emotional experiences, be they joyful or traumatic.

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