Newspeak is the fictional language of Oceania , a totalitarian superstate that is the setting of dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four , by George Orwell. To meet the ideological requirements of English Socialism in Oceania, the ruling English Socialist Party Ingsoc created Newspeak  : , a controlled language of simplified grammar and restricted vocabulary designed to limit the individual's ability to think and articulate "subversive" concepts such as personal identity, self-expression and free will. In "The Principles of Newspeak", the appendix to the novel, Orwell explains that Newspeak follows most of the rules of English grammar, yet is a language characterised by a continually diminishing vocabulary; complete thoughts reduced to simple terms of simplistic meaning. Linguistically, the political contractions of Newspeak— Ingsoc English Socialism , Minitrue Ministry of Truth , Miniplenty Ministry of Plenty —identify the political philosophy and the government institutions of Oceania; like the Russian contractions politburo Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union , Comintern Communist International , kolkhoz collective farm , and Komsomol Young Communists' League —identify the institutions of the Soviet Union ; likewise, the German political contractions— Nazi Nationalsozialismus and Gestapo Geheime Staatspolizei —respectively identify the political philosophy and the secret state police of Nazi Germany. The Party's long-term goal with regard to the new language is for every member of the Party and society, except the Proles —the working-class of Oceania—to exclusively communicate in Newspeak, by A. That Orwell was interested in linguistic questions and questions pertaining to the function and change of language is a fact that can already be seen in his essay " Politics and the English Language "  as well as in the Appendix to Nineteen Eighty-Four. The conclusion thematically reiterates linguistic decline: "I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable. Those who deny this may argue that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development, by any direct tinkering with words or constructions. Orwell's main objection against this decline of the English language is not so much based on aesthetic grounds, but rather that for him the linguistic decline goes hand-in-hand with a decline of thought, the real possibility of manipulation of speakers as well as listeners and eventually political chaos. When the general atmosphere is bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find - this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify - that the German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. Newspeak is a constructed language , of planned phonology , grammar, and vocabulary, like Basic English , which Orwell showed interest in while working at the BBC during the Second World War — , but soon came to see the disadvantages of. Newspeak has considerable similarities to the system of Basic English proposed by Charles Kay Ogden in Basic 'British American Scientific International Commercial' English was a controlled language and designed to be an easy-to-learn English with only core words. Like Newspeak, the Basic vocabulary is classified into three categories, two of them with two subcategories. The classification systems do however not coincide. The political purpose of Newspeak is to eliminate the expression of the shades of meaning inherent in ambiguity and nuance from Oldspeak Standard English. In order to reduce the language's function of communication, Newspeak uses concepts of simple construction: pleasure vs. Goodthink vs. In Newspeak, English root words function as both nouns and verbs, which reduce the vocabulary available for the speaker to communicate meaning. For example, think is both a noun and a verb, thus, the word thought is not functionally required to communicate the concepts of thought in Newspeak and therefore is not in the Newspeak vocabulary. As personal communication, Newspeak is to be spoken in staccato rhythm, using words that are short and easy to pronounce. The Party intends to make speech physically automatic and intellectually unconscious in order to diminish the possibility of critical thought occurring to the speaker. English words of comparative and superlative meanings and irregular spellings were simplified into regular spellings; thus, better becomes gooder and best becomes goodest. The prefixes plus- and doubleplus- are used for emphasis for example, pluscold meaning "very cold" and doublepluscold meaning "extremely cold". Adjectives are formed by adding the suffix —ful to a root-word, e. The intellectual purpose of Newspeak is to make Ingsoc-approved thoughts the only expressible thoughts. As constructed, Newspeak's vocabulary communicates the exact expression of sense and meaning that a member of the Party could wish to express. It excludes secondary denotations and connotations. The linguistic simplification of Oldspeak into Newspeak was realised with neologisms, the elimination of ideologically undesirable words, and the elimination of the politically unorthodox meanings of words. The word free still existed in Newspeak, but only to communicate a lack of something, e. The word could not denote free will , because intellectual freedom was no longer supposed to exist in Oceania. The limitations of Newspeak's vocabulary enabled the Party to effectively control the population's minds, by allowing the user only a very narrow range of spoken and written thought; hence, words such as: crimethink thought crime , doublethink accepting contradictory beliefs , and Ingsoc English Socialism communicated only their surface meanings. In the story of Nineteen Eighty-Four , the lexicologist character Syme discusses his editorial work on the latest edition of the Newspeak Dictionary :. By —earlier, probably—all real knowledge of Oldspeak will have disappeared. The whole literature of the past will have been destroyed. Chaucer , Shakespeare , Milton , Byron —they'll exist only in Newspeak versions, not merely changed into something different, but actually contradictory of what they used to be. Even the literature of The Party will change.
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