Environmental communication is "the dissemination of information and the implementation of communication practices that are related to the environment. In the beginning, environmental communication was a narrow area of communication; however, nowadays, it is a broad field that includes research and practices regarding how different actors e. Environmental communication also includes human interactions with the environment. From the perspective of practice, Alexander Flor defines environmental communication as the application of communication approaches, principles, strategies, and techniques to environmental management and protection. Environmental Communication, breaking off from traditional rhetorical theory, emerged in the United States around the s. Since then, environmental communication theory has reached multiple milestones including the creation of the journal of environmental communication in As an academic field, environmental communication emerged from interdisciplinary work involving communication , environmental studies , environmental science , risk analysis and management, sociology , and political ecology. In his textbook, Alexander Flor considers environmental communication to be a significant element in the environmental sciences, which he believes to be transdisciplinary. He begins his textbook on environmental communication with a declarative statement: "Environmentalism as we know it today began with environmental communication. In general, Environmental skepticism is an increasing challenge for environmental rhetoric. A major subfield of environmental communication is climate communication, which is focused on the communicating about anthroprogenic climate change. Climate change communications has historically focused on news coverage and disseminating of information. The technological breakthroughs empowered by the appearance of the Internet are also contributing to environmental problems. Air pollution, acid rain, global warming, and the reduction of natural sources are also an outcome of online technologies. Environmental communication is also a type of symbolic action that serves two functions: pragmatic and constitutive. Environmental human communication is pragmatic because it helps individuals and organizations to accomplish goals and do things through communication. Examples include educating, alerting, persuading, and collaborating. Environmental human communication is constitutive because it helps shape human understanding of environmental issues , themselves, and nature. Examples include values, attitudes, and ideologies regarding nature and environmental issues. In the book Pragmatic Environmentalism: Towards a Rhetoric of Eco-Justice , environmental philosopher Shane Ralston criticizes Cox's pragmatic function of environmental communication for being too shallow and instrumental, recommending instead a deeper account borrowed from Pragmatism : "[A]n even better way to move beyond a conception of pragmatic rhetoric as shallow instrumentalism and deepen the meaning of pragmatic[ Environmental nature communication occurs when plants actually communicate within ecosystems: "A plant injured on one leaf by a nibbling insect can alert its other leaves to begin anticipatory defense responses. The biologists are "starting to unravel a long-standing mystery about how different parts of a plant communicate with one another. All beings are connected by the Systems Theory , which submits that one of the three critical functions of living systems is the exchange of information with its environment and with other living systems the other two being the exchange of materials and the exchange of energy. Flor extends this argument, saying: "All living systems, from the simplest to the most complex, are equipped to perform these critical functions. They are called critical because they are necessary for the survival of the living system. Communication is nothing more than the exchange of information. Hence, at its broadest sense, environmental communication is necessary for the survival of every living system, be it an organism, an ecosystem, or even a social system. To understand the ways in which environmental communication has an effect on individuals, researchers believe that one's view on the environment shapes their views in a variety of ways. The overall study of environmental communication consists of the idea that nature "speaks. Researchers view environmental communication as symbolic and material. They argue that the material world helps shape communication as communication helps shape the world. This understanding gives researchers the ability to study how cultures react to the environment around them.
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