Social intelligence is the capacity to know oneself and to know others. Social Intelligence develops from experience with people and learning from success and failures in social settings. It is more commonly referred to as "tact", " common sense ", or "street smarts". The original definition by Edward Thorndike in is "the ability to understand and manage men and women and boys and girls, to act wisely in human relations". According to Sean Foleno, social intelligence is a person's competence to optimally understand one's environment and react appropriately for socially successful conduct. These factors together form the social intelligence of an organism. The social intelligence hypothesis states that social intelligence, that is, complex socialization such as politics, romance, family relationships, quarrels, collaboration, reciprocity, and altruism, 1 was a driving force in developing the size of human brains and 2 today provides our ability to use those large brains in complex social circumstances. Archaeologist Steve Mithen believes that there are two key evolutionary periods of human brain growth that contextualize the social intelligence hypothesis. The first was about two million years ago, when the brain more than doubled in size. Mithen believes that this growth was because people were living in larger, more complex groups, and had to keep track of more people and relationships. These changes required a greater mental capacity and, in turn, a larger brain size. The second key growth period in human brain size occurred between , and , years ago, when the brain reached its modern size. While this growth is still not fully explained, Mithen believes that it is related to the evolution of language. Language may be the most complex cognitive task we undertake. Social intelligence was a critical factor in brain growth. Social and cognitive complexity co-evolve. Scores of or above are considered to be very high. Unlike the standard IQ test, it is not a fixed model. SQ has until recently been measured by techniques such as question and answer sessions. These sessions assess the person's pragmatic abilities to test eligibility in certain special education courses; however, some tests have been developed to measure social intelligence. This test can be used when diagnosing autism spectrum disorders. This test can also be used to check for some non-autistic or semi-autistic conditions such as semantic pragmatic disorder or SPD, schizophrenia , dyssemia and ADHD. Some social intelligence measures exist which are self-report. People with low SQ are more suited to work with low customer contact, as well as in smaller groups or teams, or independently, because they may not have the required interpersonal communication and social skills for success with customers and other co-workers. George Washington University Social Intelligence Test : Is one of the only ability measures available for assessing social intelligence and was created in June by Dr. Thelma Hunt a psychologist from George Washington University. Nicholas Humphrey points to a difference between intelligence being measured by IQ tests and social intelligence. Some autistic children are extremely intelligent because they have well developed skills of observing and memorizing information, however they have low social intelligence. Similarly, chimpanzees are very adept at observation and memorization, but according to Humphrey, inept at handling interpersonal relationships. They struggle with a full theory of mind. For a long time, the field was dominated by behaviorism , that is, the theory that one could understand animals including humans, just by observing their behavior and finding correlations. But recent theories indicate that one must consider the inner structure behavior. Both Nicholas Humphrey and Ross Honeywill believe that it is social intelligence, or the richness of our qualitative life, rather than our quantitative intelligence, that makes humans what they are. For example, what it is like to be a human being living at the centre of the conscious present, surrounded by smells, tastes, feels and the sense of being an extraordinary metaphysical entity with properties which hardly seem to belong to the physical world. This is social intelligence. Social intelligence is closely related to cognition and emotional intelligence. In early work on this topic, psychologists Nancy Cantor and John Kihlstrom outlined the kinds of concepts people use to make sense of their social relations e. Sameer Babu is a professor who wrote an article about classroom climate and social intelligence. More recently, popular science writer Daniel Goleman has drawn on social neuroscience research to propose that social intelligence is made up of social awareness including empathy , attunement, empathic accuracy , and social cognition and social facility including synchrony, self-presentation , influence , and concern. Effects include blood flow, breathing, mood such as fatigue and depression, and weakening of the immune system.
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