The social aspects of television are influences this medium has had on society since its inception. The belief that this impact has been dramatic has been largely unchallenged in media theory since its inception. However, there is much dispute as to what those effects are, how serious the ramifications are and if these effects are more or less evolutionary with human communication. Current research is discovering that individuals suffering from social isolation can employ television to create what is termed a parasocial or faux relationship with characters from their favorite television shows and movies as a way of deflecting feelings of loneliness and social deprivation. Jaye Derrick and Shira Gabriel of the University of Buffalo, and Kurt Hugenberg of Miami University found that when an individual is not able to participate in interactions with real people, they are less likely to indicate feelings of loneliness when watching their favorite TV show. They refer to this finding as the social surrogacy hypothesis. This benefit is considered a positive consequence of watching television, as it can counteract the psychological damage that is caused by isolation from social relationships. Several studies have found that educational television has many advantages. The Media Awareness Network  explains in its article "The Good Things about Television"  that television can be a very powerful and effective learning tool for children if used wisely. The article states that television can help young people discover where they fit into society, develop closer relationships with peers and family, and teach them to understand complex social aspects of communication. Similarly, while those exposed to negative role models suffered, those exposed to positive models behaved better. Selvaraj points out several benefits of watching TV on an educational level and on an emotional level. She explains that it can, " With the range of channels on offer, there is no dearth [lack] of educational content. This creates happiness and can raise the energy too. Being energetic and happy allows your body to be more active. More activity makes people healthier. Emotionally, watching television can help strengthen the bond of a family. The rich array of pejoratives for television for example, "boob tube" and "chewing gum for the mind" and so forth indicate a disdain held by many people for this medium. Minow spoke of the "vast wasteland" that was the television programming of the day in his speech. Complaints about the social influence of television have been heard from the U. They complain that, because of the popularity and considerable viewership of CSI and its spin-offs, juries today expect to be 'dazzled", and will acquit criminals of charges unless presented with impressive physical evidence, even when motive, testimony, and lack of alibi are presented by the prosecution. Television has also been credited with changing the norms of social propriety, although the direction and value of this change are disputed. Milton Shulman , writing about television in the s, wrote that "TV cartoons showed cows without udders and not even a pause was pregnant," and noted that on-air vulgarity was highly frowned upon. Shulman suggested that, even by the s, television was shaping the ideas of propriety and appropriateness in the countries the medium blanketed. He asserted that, as a particularly "pervasive and ubiquitous" medium, television could create a comfortable familiarity with and acceptance of language and behavior once deemed socially unacceptable. Television, as well as influencing its viewers, evoked an imitative response from other competing media as they struggle to keep pace and retain viewer- or readership. The research was conducted with 30, people during the period between and This contrasted with a previous study, which indicated that watching TV was the happiest time of the day for some people. Based on his study, Robinson commented that the pleasurable effects of television may be likened to an addictive activity, producing "momentary pleasure but long-term misery and regret. In , social psychologist Douglas T. Kenrick demonstrated experimentally that following exposure to photographs or stories about desirable potential mates, human subjects decrease their ratings of commitment to their current partners. Williams and psychiatrist Randolph M. Nesse observed that television and other mass communications such as films were arousing envy by broadcasting the lives of most successful members of society and were causing lower feelings of commitment to spouses as a consequence of the television industry's hiring of physically attractive actors and actresses. One theory says that when a person plays video games or watches TV, the basal ganglia portion of the brain becomes very active and dopamine is released.
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